Internal Combustion Engine: The Heart Of The Automobile
An internal combustion engine is an engine that uses the explosive combustion of fuel to push a piston within a cylinder ;the piston’s movement turns a crankshaft that then turns the car wheels via a chain or a drive shaft.;The different types of fuel commonly used for car combustion engines are gasoline , diesel, and kerosene.
A brief outline of the history of the internal combustion engine includes the following highlights:
Engine design and car design were integral activities, almost all of the engine designers mentioned above also designed cars, and a few went on to become major manufacturers of automobiles.;All of these inventors and more made notable improvements in the evolution of the internal combustion vehicles.
How It All Began 1: Gottlieb Daimler
‘Its not the idea, its the implementation that counts.’
Gottlieb Daimler is born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attends the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he starts work as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he is appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he meets Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. In 1872, he becomes Technical Director of the gas engine manufacturer Deutz Gasmotorenfabrik, where he becomes familiar with Ottos four-stroke technology. After differences with the Managing Director, he leaves the company in 1882. Daimler sets up a development workshop in his greenhouse at his Cannstatt villa to concentrate on developing petrol-driven four-stroke engines. Working with Wilhelm Maybach in 1884, he develops an internal combustion engine known today as the ‘Grandfather Clock’. With its compact, low-weight design, the machine forms the basis for installation in a vehicle. The costs of trial operations soon consume Daimlers entire fortune, however, so he is obliged to find business partners. He founds ‘Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft’ on 28 November 1890 together with Max Duttenhofer and his business partner Wilhelm Lorenz. But while Duttenhofer wants to produce stationary engines, Daimler prefers to focus on vehicle production, and a dispute ensues.
Who Made The First Cars
Beginning in the 1770s, many people tried to make cars that would run on steam. Some early steam cars worked well, and some did not. Some were fire pumpers that moved by themselves, and others were small locomotives with road wheels. Beginning in the 1880s, inventors tried very hard to make cars that would run well enough to use every day. These experimental cars ran on steam, gasoline, or electricity. By the 1890s, Europeans were buying and driving cars made by Benz, Daimler, Panhard, and others, and Americans were buying and driving cars made by Duryea, Haynes, Winton, and others. By 1905 gasoline cars were more popular than steam or electric cars because they were easier to use and could travel further without adding fuel. By 1910 gasoline cars became larger and more powerful, and some had folding tops to keep drivers and passengers out of the rain.
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Second Victory At Le Mans
Despite serious financial problems at Bugatti, Jean was able to persuade his father to enter Le Mans. Ettore only wanted to take part in the race again when the speed record set in 1937 was broken. With just one car, a Type 57 chassis with a compressor and a Tank body similar to the one used in 1937, Bugatti won the 24 Hours of Le Mans again. This time, Jean Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron were at the wheel. With an average speed of almost 140 km/h, they actually beat the record set by Bugatti in 1937.
When Were Cars Invented
The 1901 Mercedes, designed by Wilhelm Maybach for Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, deserves credit for being the first modern motorcar in all essentials.
Its thirty-five-horsepower engine weighed only fourteen pounds per horsepower, and it achieved a top speed of fifty-three miles per hour. By 1909, with the most integrated automobile factory in Europe, Daimler employed some seventeen hundred workers to produce fewer than a thousand cars per year.
Nothing illustrates the superiority of European design better than the sharp contrast between this first Mercedes model and Ransom E. Olds 1901-1906 one-cylinder, three-horsepower, tiller-steered, curved-dash Oldsmobile, which was merely a motorized horse buggy. But the Olds sold for only $650, putting it within reach of middle-class Americans, and the 1904 Olds output of 5,508 units surpassed any car production previously accomplished.
The central problem of automotive technology over the first decade of the twentieth century would be reconciling the advanced design of the 1901 Mercedes with the moderate price and low operating expenses of the Olds. This would be overwhelmingly an American achievement.
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Rise Of Japanese Automakers
Engineering in the postwar era was subordinated to the questionable aesthetics of nonfunctional styling at the expense of economy and safety. And quality deteriorated to the point that by the mid-1960s American-made cars were being delivered to retail buyers with an average of twenty-four defects a unit, many of them safety-related. Moreover, the higher unit profits that Detroit made on gas-guzzling road cruisers were made at the social costs of increased air pollution and a drain on dwindling world oil reserves.
The era of the annually restyled road cruiser ended with the imposition of federal standards of automotive safety , emission of pollutants , and energy consumption ; with escalating gasoline prices following the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979; and especially with the mounting penetration of both the U.S. and world markets first by the German Volkswagen Bug and then by Japanese fuel-efficient, functionally designed, well-built small cars.
After peaking at a record 12.87 million units in 1978, sales of American-made cars fell to 6.95 million in 1982, as imports increased their share of the U.S. market from 17.7 percent to 27.9 percent. In 1980 Japan became the worlds leading auto producer, a position it continues to hold.
Soviet Fords And The Gorki
In May 1929 the Soviet Union signed an agreement with the Ford Motor Company. Under its terms, the Soviets agreed to purchase $13 million worth of automobiles and parts, while Ford agreed to give technical assistance until 1938 to construct an integrated automobile-manufacturing plant at Nizhny Novgorod. Many American engineers and skilled auto workers moved to the Soviet Union to work on the plant and its production lines, which was named Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod , or Gorki Automotive Plant in 1932. A few American workers stayed on after the plant’s completion, and eventually became victims of Stalin’s Great Terror, either shot or exiled to Soviet gulags. In 1933, the Soviets completed construction on a production line for the Ford Model-A passenger car, called the GAZ-A, and a light truck, the GAZ-AA. Both these Ford models were immediately adopted for military use. By the late 1930s production at Gorki was 80,000-90,000 “Russian Ford” vehicles per year. With its original Ford-designed vehicles supplemented by imports and domestic copies of imported equipment, the Gorki operations eventually produced a range of automobiles, trucks, and military vehicles.
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Early Developments And Assembly Line
During its early years, the company produced a range of vehicles designated, chronologically, from the Ford Model A to the Model K and Model S of 1907. The K, Ford’s first six-cylinder model, was known as “the gentleman’s roadster” and “the silent cyclone”, and sold for US$2800; by contrast, around that time, the Enger 40 was priced at US$2000, the Colt Runabout US$1500, the high-volume OldsmobileRunabout US$650, Western‘s Gale Model A US$500, and the Success hit the amazingly low US$250.
These innovations were hard on employees, and turnover of workers was very high, while increased productivity reduced labor demand. Turnover meant delays and extra costs of training, and use of slow workers. In January 1914, Ford solved the employee turnover problem by doubling pay to $5 a day cutting shifts from nine hours to an eight-hour day for a 5-day work week , and instituting hiring practices that identified the best workers, including disabled people considered unemployable by other firms. Employee turnover plunged, productivity soared, and with it, the cost per vehicle plummeted. Ford cut prices again and again and invented the system of franchised dealers who were loyal to his brand name. Wall Street had criticized Ford’s generous labor practices when he began paying workers enough to buy the products they made.
Transmission And Drive Train
The Model T is a rear-wheel drive vehicle. Its transmission is a planetary gear type billed as “three speed.” In today’s terms it is considered a two-speed, because one of the three speeds is reverse.
The Model T’s transmission is controlled with three floor-mounted pedals and a lever mounted to the road side of the driver’s seat. The throttle is controlled with a lever on the steering wheel. The left-hand pedal is used to engage the transmission. With the floor lever in either the mid position or fully forward and the pedal pressed and held forward, the car enters low gear. When held in an intermediate position, the car is in neutral. If the left pedal is released, the Model;T enters high gear, but only when the lever is fully forward in any other position, the pedal only moves up as far as the central neutral position. This allows the car to be held in neutral while the driver cranks the engine by hand. The car can thus cruise without the driver having to press any of the pedals.
In the first 800 units, reverse is engaged with a lever; all units after that use the central pedal, which is used to engage reverse gear when the car is in neutral. The right-hand pedal operates the transmission brake there are no brakes on the wheels. The floor lever also controls the parking brake, which is activated by pulling the lever all the way back. This doubles as an emergency brake.
Chassis / frame
Transmission bands and linings
Two main types of band lining material were used:
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How It All Began : The ‘grandfather Clock’ Engine
The first contemporary automobile.
Working together in the Cannstatt district of Stuttgart, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach are faced with a considerable challenge: To develop a high-performance engine capable of driving a vehicle. Due to their weight and size, the drive machines available at the time are unsuitable for installation in a motor carriage. The two engineers would have to develop miniature versions of existing designs to produce a drive concept in line with Daimlers plans. A light, compact design are key factors in this process. On this basis, Daimler and Maybach build a test engine with a vertical cylinder, which is christened the Grandfather Clock due to its appearance. The output of the 1884 design is around 1 hp with an engine speed of 600 rpm. The compact, weight-saving construction makes it ideal for installation in vehicles. It is subsequently used in the Daimler Reitwagen and the motor carriage. This design paves the way for Daimler and Maybach to install an engine in a motor vehicle.
History Of Ford Motor Company
The Ford Motor Company is an American automaker, the world’s fifth largest based on worldwide vehicle sales. Based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, it was founded by Henry Ford on June 16, 1903. Ford Motor Company would go on to become one of the largest and most profitable companies in the world, as well as being one of the few to survive the Great Depression. The largest family-controlled company in the world, the Ford Motor Company has been in continuous family control for over 110 years. Ford now encompasses two brands: Ford and Lincoln. Ford once owned 5 other luxury brands: Volvo, Land Rover, Jaguar, Aston Martin, and Mercury. Over time, those brands were sold to other companies and Mercury was discontinued.
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Why Was The Automobile Invented
The automobile was invented to provide a form to transport people and cargo that was quicker and more convenient than those that existed at the time, such as horses, horse-drawn carriages, trains and boats. In addition to the automobiles basic benefit of faster, private transportation, the automobile also provided economic security and job opportunities for those working in the automobile industry.
The first automobile produced in the United States was the 1901 Curbed Dash Oldsmobile, built by Ransom E. Olds. While this car was the first to be manufactured, many people are more familiar with the invent of mass automobile production, which took place around 1908, when Henry Ford began producing the Model T. In 1896, Ford built his first gasoline powered car, but the Model T was the first of its kind to be produced in an assembly line manner. Model T production was discontinued in 1927 after 18 million vehicles had been produced.
Before gas-powered vehicles, steam-powered vehicles were manufactured as early as the late 1700s. In 1771, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot built the Fardier, a three-wheeled, steam-powered, vehicle that traveled at 2.3 miles per hour. It was designed for the French Minister of War. Due to the fact that it was slower and harder to operate than a horse-powered carriage, it was never mass produced.
A New Beginning For Electric Cars
While all the starts and stops of the electric vehicle industry in the second half of the 20th century helped show the world the promise of the technology, the true revival of the electric vehicle didnt happen until around the start of the 21st century. Depending on whom you ask, it was one of two events that sparked the interest we see today in electric vehicles.
The first turning point many have suggested was the introduction of the Toyota Prius. Released in Japan in 1997, the Prius became the worlds first mass-produced hybrid electric vehicle. In 2000, the Prius was released worldwide, and it became an instant success with celebrities, helping to raise the profile of the car. To make the Prius a reality, Toyota used a nickel metal hydride battery — a technology that was supported by the Energy Departments research. Since then, rising gasoline prices and growing concern about carbon pollution have helped make the Prius the best-selling hybrid worldwide during the past decade.
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When Was The First Automobile Made
Who built the first automobile? How did the world learn to use cars and drive them? And why are there still cars around even though all of them have been replaced by electronic gadgets? Answers to these questions and many more can be found in this article.
The very beginning of the road can be traced back to the wheeled vehicles that people would take across the Middle East centuries ago. In fact, it was through the use of wheels that the first automobile was ever made. These early road vehicles were made from wood or hollow bones. As the centuries passed, better materials were used and eventually to get to the point where automobiles could be made, wheels were added. The first automobiles that people would make were for transportation on the roads, but they soon became much more than that.
The Romans were the first civilization to use the wheel as a means of travel. They developed a cycle that was attached to the axle of the vehicle so that the wheels could turn. From there, the journey from town to town would be made. This was the first automobile manufacturer. While this concept may seem ridiculous today, the Romans were truly ahead of their time in this area. The Romans believed that the automobile would improve war and transportation by allowing people to get from one point to another quickly.
What Does The Future Hold For The Automobile
The future of the car will see two major trends: self-driving cars and research onnew propulsion methods.
Autonomous cars like Google Car and Uber and Tesla Motors self-driving cars seem to have come straight out of a science fiction book. The coming of driverless cars had actually already begun in 1990, but theyve taken a lot of fine-tuning, and it will still be some time until we see them regularly on the roads!
The search is on for greener, more sustainable solutions to fossil fuels as consumers increasingly turn to renewable energies. However, the electric car didnt just come about yesterday: the first prototypes were invented in 1834! Given the strong competition from steam-powered cars and combustion engines and the lack of performance and autonomy of electric models, this option was set aside for a very long timeuntil Elon Musk and his company Tesla Motors brought it back to life. In 2010, Japan automaker Nissan introduced the first 100% electric car for the general public, called the Leaf, from the acronym leading,;environmentally friendly,;affordable,;family;car.
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What Was The First Car In The World
The first car ever was created 134 years ago. The history of cars is quite intriguing, particularly because a wide variety of inventions were an integral part of creating the technology needed to create the first working car. Many inventors came up with their own car designs in the 18th and 19th century, however, analysts universally refer Karl Benzs car model of 1885 as the very first automobile.
While sifting through history books of automobiles, it may seem that there were several car-like inventions that preceded the first car in the world and thats not wrong. In the 18th century, the invention of steam engines proved to be a huge turning pointit led to the manufacturing of steam-engine cars. Steam cars were hard to handle, especially due to their weight. While steam vehicles did not prove to be successful for normal use, they paved the way for the future of cars with fuel engines in the next century.