Wednesday, September 4, 2024

# How Long To Charge An Electric Car

## And What Are The Variables That Will Have An Impact On Recharging Times

How long does it take to charge an electric vehicle? How does an EV charge?

Watching paint dry, waiting for the kettle to boil, recharging the battery of your electric car All of these activities test our patience in the time-poor 21st Century.

Of course, no one really has to watch paint dry or the kettle boil. Go watch Netflix instead

But recharging an electric vehicle while out on the road does takes significantly more time than refuelling at a petrol station.

So how long does it take for an EV to recharge? Long enough to prepare dinner? Long enough to write three more chapters of ones magnum opus? Long enough for Axel Rose to produce the next Guns N Roses album?

The answer will vary in accordance with these factors:

• The power output of the charging device used to replenish the battery
• The speed of the cars on-board charger to draw power from an alternating current power source, when using that option
• The storage capacity of the battery
• How depleted the battery is

You should also consider your cars charging capacity when you figure out how long it will take you to charge it. For calculations purposes, optimal charging time for your electric vehicle by dividing the battery capacity by the power rating of your cars onboard charger, then adding 10 percent to the loss of power associated with charging it.

For example, a Tesla Model 3 Performance has an 11.5-kW charger and an 80.5 kWh battery, which would take roughly 7 hours to charge fully. However, the typical electric vehicle offers a standard 6.0 kW charger, which would more than double that cars charging time.

DCFCs like Tesla can charge at 250 kW, which would lower that charging time to a mere 20 minutes.

## How Far Can An Electric Car Go

As you might expect, this depends on which car you choose. The rule of thumb is the more you spend, the further youâll go.

The range you get depends on how you drive your car. If you drive fast, youâll get far fewer kilometres than listed below. Careful drivers should be able to squeeze even more kilometres out of their vehicles.

These are some approximate ranges for different electric cars.

• Renault Zoe – 394km
• Hyundai IONIQ – 310km
• Nissan Leaf e+ – 384km
• Kia e Niro – 453km
• BMW i3 120Ah – 293km
• Tesla Model 3 SR+ – 409km
• Tesla Model 3 LR – 560km
• Jaguar I-Pace – 470km
• Honda e – 201km
• Vauxhall Corsa e- 336km

It is worth noting that electric vehicle range is expected to steadily increase as battery technology improves.

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## How Much Does It Cost To Charge An Electric Car

The single biggest question many people ask about electric cars is: What will I spend to charge the vehicle?

If youre looking at an electric car vs. a gas car, doing a bit of upfront research on charging costs vs. gas costs will help you make an informed decision.

To answer the question of cost, we enlisted the help of John Voelcker, a longtime automotive journalist and industry analyst who specializes in electric vehicles. Hes heard every argument made for electric vehicle ownership, including the cost of recharging compared to traditional refueling.

## Charging Time On A Fast Charge Station

Fast charging stations, which are most commonly found at filling stations or highway service stations, make it possible to charge an electric vehicle in a particularly short time. These fast charge stations wattage is very high from 50 kW to some 250 kW for those known as rapid charge stations However, since electric cars vary in terms of their ability to withstand high-wattage charging, the charging time can differ between models. Good news: in Europe, fast charge stations are set to continue growing in number. For example, the E-Via program, backed by Groupe Renault, aims to roll out a corridor of fast charge stations across Italy, France and Spain.

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Driving an electric vehicle means you won’t have to visit the gas station very often, or at all.

Your;EV;can be plugged right into a standard outlet to charge, also known as Level 1 charging.; Level 1 charging adds about 8 kilometers of range per hour, and for owners of plug-in hybrid electric cars this is usually enough.

Level 2 charging, common in both private households and in public places, use a 240 volt system and adds 30-50 kilometers of range per hour.

Level 3 charging stations use a 480 volt system and can add more than 100 kilometres of range per hour. These stations make longer trips feasible for EV drivers.

## What You Should Know About Electric Vehicle Charging

In many ways, owning an electric vehicle is like owning a phone. Charge it at night so you can use it during the day; if you need extra power, you can plug it in for a quick boost. However, the charging speed will depend on the vehicles compatibility and the type of charger youre using. The battery capacity will also determine how long it takes to reach a full charge.

While electric vehicles make up only a small percentage of new car sales, the category is becoming increasingly popular as battery technology improves. And more EVs on the road means more money invested in the countrys charging infrastructure. As of this writing, there are over 40,000 public charging stations in the U.S. Thats roughly a quarter of the number of existing gas stations, and more are being built each year.

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## Normal Ac And Fast Dc Charging

There are two types of electric vehicle charging: normal alternating current charging and fast direct current charging. Normal AC charging is typically less energy-intensive which makes it much slower. When you charge at home using a conventional plug or a wallbox, or even at some public stations, you will be using AC. Fast DC charging can be completed in under an hour and is typically only found at public charging stations.

## Level 2 Charging Stations Have A 240

How do you charge an electric vehicle? How long does it take to charge?
• It can deliver an optimal battery charge of 80% in 4 to 5 hours at a charging speed of about 22.5 km per hour for a plug-in hybrid and up to 45 km per hour for an all-electric vehicle .
• It is plugged into a special outlet or connected directly to the electrical panel.

A level 2 charging station is therefore a key element in truly enjoying all the advantages of charging at home: its practicality, ease of use, reliability and savings!

#### What about level 3 charging stations?

While faster charging stations exist, they cost thousands of dollars and have energy needs that surpass what is available in a home. As a result, they are currently only used for public charging. If youâd like to learn more, check out our comprehensive guide to charging an electric car.

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## Number Of Electrical Phases

Most houses have a single-phase electrical installation.;Most EV chargers are single;phase, and;many;EVs can only accept charge from a single-phase charger.

If your;house has;a 3-phase electrical installation, or;you wish to;upgrade to one and;your;EV can accept a 3-phase charge, you;will;gain some benefits like faster charging from installing a 3-phase charger. However,;the;set-up;costs could be significant.

## How To Use A Public Electric

Public chargers are slightly different to use from home chargers. Previously, some required a subscription account or an RFID ;card in order to access them, while others worked on a pay-as-you go basis. These days, all are obligated to offer pay-as-you-go access, although frequently those who do sign up for membership or subscription enjoy preferential pricing.

To find the nearest ones,;www.zap-map.com has the most comprehensive map of public chargers in the UK. You can specify the type of connectors and speeds youre after in order to refine your search. Click on the individual station icons, and it will tell you what the payment rates are usually expressed in terms of pounds;per kilowatt-hours and whether or not you need a subscription account.

The actual charging process is as easy as with a home charger. Drive to an available bay, either pay in advance or use a subscription card to unlock the charger, and then simply connect the cable to your cars socket.

• Cars

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## Charging From A Solar Pv Or Battery System

Many EV owners also have a solar PV system and are keen to run their EV on renewable energy as much as;possible.;However, many EVs consume much more;power than the existing solar PV system can provide.;And its often challenging to charge an EV in the middle of the day when there is most likely to be excess PV generation.

The average EV uses;around;10 kWh/day. The average;5 kW;solar PV system generates;around 23 kWh/day;and exports around;half that to the grid.;Therefore, the average EV owner would need to have their EV connected to their dedicated EV charger;for several hours in the middle of almost every day to maximise their EV;charging from their PV system.

Of course, if;the EV uses more than the average, or if the solar PV system is smaller or;generating;less;excess electricity than the average, then it becomes harder to run your EV on renewable energy.

One solution is to;install a battery energy storage system to store your renewable energy;so you can use it when the sun goes;down. This is still an expensive investment and the entire EV/PV/battery system needs;to be;carefully designed;by an experienced professional;to optimise the;benefits and minimise the upfront and ongoing costs.

## Understanding Your Charging Costs And Environmental Impacts

Buying an EV will increase your electricity bill, sometimes significantly. The average EV consuming 10 kWh/day;on Tariff 11;will add over \$200 to a quarterly electricity bill.

However, the power cost will be roughly 40% of the amount you would have spent on fuel;for the same distance travelled .

Whether you have a solar PV system or not, one way to reduce the environmental impact of your EV charging;from the grid;is to subscribe to;GreenPower;through your electricity retailer.;In Queensland,;an increasing percentage;of grid-supplied electricity comes from renewable energy sources, thereby lowering the environmental impacts of EVs even further compared with;normal cars.

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## How Long Does The Battery Last

Once again, this depends on how you look after it.

Most electric car batteries are lithium-based, just like the battery in your mobile phone. Like your phone battery, the one in your car will degrade over time. What that means is it wonât hold the charge for so long and the range will reduce.

If you overcharge the battery or try to charge it at the wrong voltage it will degrade more quickly.

Check out whether the manufacturer offers a warranty on the battery â many do. They typically last eight to 10 years.

It’s worth understanding how they work, because you won’t be able to buy a new petrol or diesel car after 2030.

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## Finding The Right Plug To Charge An Ev

Voelcker explains the difference sounds more complex than it is. The vast majority of fast-charging locations have both kinds, with a different cable on each side of the station. Its like the same gas pump could dispense both regular gasoline and diesel fuel from different hoses.

As for the price, a 240-volt recharge could cost you anywhere from zero dollars to a fixed hourly rate. Charging networks often provide membership programs to minimize your recharge cost. Thats something especially useful if you cant regularly charge your vehicle at home.

The EVgo network charges rates by state and it varies for Level 2 charging. Checking the companys website, the pay-as-you-go approach costs 30 cents per minute in Georgia for its rates effective September 2021. However, if youre an EVgo Plus member, the rate per minute drops to 24 cents.

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## Recharging With A Domestic Plug Into A Regular Household Socket: 8

Excluding sports and upmarket models, most electric cars are recharged in 8-to-10 hours on any 230 V power outlet through a cable with an adapter provided by the vehicle manufacturer.The ideal is to charge electric cars at night unless they can benefit from electricity produced by your solar panels!

## Other Factors That Affect Charging Time

How to: charge an electric car

Here are some of the other variables that affect your EVs charge speed:

• Ambient temperature as cold batteries have a greater resistance to charging, cold weather can affect your EVs charging speed considerably. It can also affect the batterys range.;;
• ; Hour of the day charging your EV during peak hours will result in a slower charge, as more energy is drawn from the grid.
• Number of EVs connected this is something that affects public-use EV chargers, rather than household chargers. If the accumulated maximum charging power of the EVs and chargers exceeds the maximum amount of power delivered by the charging station, the charging speed will be affected
• EVs battery level if an EVs battery is below 20% or above 80%, the charge speed may be half as much as usual. This is an in-built feature by EV manufacturers to optimize battery life and prevent overcharging.
• Type of charge cable different types of charge cables include Type 1, Type 2 and CHAdeMO, all of which charge at different speeds
• Avoid dropping below 20% letting your battery get too depleted can also affect its longevity. Using a smart charger will enable you to make sure your EV battery never drops below 20%.
• Use it! EV batteries arent affected by overuse. In fact, they are more likely to be affected by sitting in a garage for long periods of time. So, get out there and drive!

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## Travel Distance Per Charge

New fully electric cars can typically travel at least 200 kilometres on a single charge. Some plug-in hybrid electric cars can travel 40-80 kilometres on electric, with an additional 500-900 kilometres of gas range. The distance an EV can travel depends on:

• the vehicle technology
• battery size
• accessories in use
• an individual’s driving style

EVs do not run out of charge unexpectedly. As with gasoline-powered vehicles, the dashboard display will indicate your level of charge so you can plan your trips accordingly.

## How Electric Vehicle Charging Times Work

When youre looking for an electric vehicle , youll hear a lot about its range on a full charge, which is how many miles it can travel before youll need to recharge the battery. Youll also hear how long it takes to refill that empty battery.

If youre driving an EV on a daily basis, though, whats going to matter more is how much time it takes to get the range you need each day. The biggest factor determining total charging time is battery size a big battery goes farther but needs more time to fully recharge. So lets look at how many miles youll get per hour of charging.

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## You Need To Do Some Math

Dont sweat it. The math involved is pretty simple. For the most accurate estimate, it helps if you have a recent electric bill for reference. Thats because were kicking things off by calculating the amount consumers pay for electricity in a given month. Then well provide examples so you can determine how much you spend on each kilowatt-hour of electricity used.

For home charging, find your electric bill, then divide the of kilowatt-hours you used into the bottom-line dollar total. Thatll give you the price you paid per kWh, Voelcker explains.

According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the average U.S. household pays nearly 14 cents per kWh as of May 2021.

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To use a simplified example, if you used 1,400 kilowatt-hours of electricity and your monthly bill is an even \$100, youre paying exactly 14 cents for each kWh. Most bills arent this nicely formulated and clear-cut, of course.

But for the sake of this example, lets stick with this easy-to-use rate and apply it to a typical electric car.

## What Determines How Long It Takes To Charge An Electric Car

EVs come in different shapes and sizes with types of charging systems based on charging power measured in kilowatts . AC charging at 120V or 240V ranges from 1.8 to 10 kW. DC fast charging ranges from 50 to 350kW.

Level 1 is the slowest but most readily available, because it describes a standard 120-volt three-prong plug common in modern American homes. Yes, thats right. You can charge an EV using the same plug with which you charge your phone or laptop. In fact, most EVs come with a standard 120-volt outlet charger.

But slow charging, sometimes called trickle charging, using a Level 1 outlet provides only a few miles per hour of charging. It takes 10 hours of charging to get 20-50 miles of range or 40 hours of charging for up to 200 miles. Trickle charging isnt a barrier to ownership since its suitable for top-ups overnight or at work, but it isnt efficient and is not the preferred method unless you own a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

If you rely on Level 1 charging, you may have to charge nightly or throughout the day at work, depending on your daily driving. Its like getting gas every day, twice. It can be done, its just not convenient. Its especially difficult if youre in a multi-family unit like an apartment building or dont have a dedicated parking spot.

Level 2 charging is exponentially faster than Level 1 charging, providing upwards of 25-30 miles of driving range per hour. That means an 8-hour overnight charge reaps 200 miles or more of driving range.

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