Since The 20th Century
Before diesel fuel had been standardised, diesel engines typically ran on cheap fuel oils. In the United States, these were distilled from petroleum, whereas in Europe, coal-tar creosote oil was used. Some diesel engines were fuelled with mixtures of several different fuels, such as petrol, kerosine, rapeseed oil, or lubricating oil, because they were untaxed and thus cheap. The introduction of motor-vehicle diesel engines, such as the , in the 1930s meant that higher quality fuels with proper ignition characteristics were needed. At first no improvements were made to motor-vehicle diesel fuel quality. After World War II, the first modern high quality diesel fuels were standardised. These standards were, for instance, the DIN 51601, VTL 9140-001, and NATO F 54 standards. In 1993, the DIN 51601 was rendered obsolete by the new EN 590 standard, which has been used in the European Union ever since. In sea-going watercraft, where diesel propulsion had gained prevalence by the late 1970s due to increasing fuel costs caused by the , cheap are still used instead of conventional motor-vehicle diesel fuel. These heavy fuel oils can be used in diesel-powered and steam-powered vessels.
FAME used as fuel is specified in and ASTM D6751 standards.
are the source for the lower oxidation stability. They react with oxygen and form peroxides and result in degradation byproducts, which can cause sludge and lacquer in the fuel system.
Charles And Frank Duryea
America’s first gasoline-powered commercial car manufacturers were Charles and Frank Duryea. The brothers were bicycle makers who became interested in gasoline engines and automobiles and built their first motor vehicle in 1893, in Springfield, Massachusetts. By 1896, the Duryea Motor Wagon Company had sold thirteen models of the Duryea, an expensive limousine, which remained in production into the 1920s.
How Many Cars Are In The Smithsonian
The Smithsonian Automobile Collection in the Division of Work and Industry at the National Musuem of American History contains around 80 full-size automobiles. The automobile collection attempts to include significant automotive milestones as cars changed from horseless carriages to an intrinsic part of American life. The Smithsonian has been collecting cars since 1899, and almost all of them have been given by people or businesses.
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The First Car Was Made In 1769
Nicola-Joseph Cugnot was one of the pioneers of the steam-powered car. He was an engineer in the French military. Previously, others had experimented with steam pistons. But Cugnot invented a ratchet so a piston could create rotational power. His steam-powered cart, designed for transporting military supplies, was the first self-propelled land vehicle.
Energy Content Statistics And Pricing
Quantities of natural gas are measured in and pressure 101.325 kPa ) or and pressure 14.73 psi ), one cubic meter â 35.3147 cu ft. The of commercial quality natural gas is around 39 MJ/m3 , but this can vary by several percent. This is about 49 MJ/kg , an approximate value).
Except in the European Union, the U.S., and Canada, natural gas is sold in gigajoule retail units. LNG and LPG are traded in metric tonnes or million BTU as spot deliveries. Long term natural gas distribution contracts are signed in cubic meters, and LNG contracts are in metric tonnes. The LNG and LPG is transported by specialized , as the gas is liquified at temperatures. The specification of each LNG/LPG cargo will usually contain the energy content, but this information is in general not available to the public.
In the Russian Federation, sold approximately 250 billion cubic meters of natural gas in 2008. In 2013 they produced 487.4 billion cubic meters of natural and associated gas. Gazprom supplied Europe with 161.5 billion cubic meters of gas in 2013. The European Union aims to cut its gas dependency on Russia by two-thirds in 2022.
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Why Did Petrol Cars Become More Popular Than Electric And Steam
Electric cars were more popular than petrol and steam at the turn of the 20th century, but it wasnt long before petrol became the dominant fuel for road vehicles.
One of the advantages of electric cars was that they were easy to start and operate, whereas petrol models required a hand crank and careful finessing while in use. Cranking could be dangerous, and breaking an arm as the crank lever spun round wasnt unheard of. Whats more, petrol stations were not common the fuel was bought in bottles from chemists in the early days before hand pumps were installed outside shops.
Steam cars, meanwhile, required a boiler to be heated to operating pressure, which could take half an hour or so.
The problem with electric cars, though, was the battery chemistry. Whereas modern lithium-ion batteries can be recharged relatively quickly, generate a lot of power and last for years, in the early days the type used were slow to charge, didnt allow for long-distance travel and faded more quickly. Electricity was also not yet widespread around 1900.
The success of the Ford Model T in driving down costs and the expansion of the filling station network to allow long-distance travel gave petrol power the edge. The electric starter motor was invented in 1903 and, though it wasnt available on the Model T until 1919, made petrol cars much easier to start, which sealed petrols success.
Automotive Industry Growing Pains
Fords mass production techniques were quickly adopted by other American automobile manufacturers. The heavier outlays of capital and larger volume of sales that this necessitated ended the era of easy entry and free-wheeling competition among many small producers in the American industry.
The number of active automobile manufacturers dropped from 253 in 1908 to only 44 in 1929, with about 80 percent of the industrys output accounted for by Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler, formed from Maxwell in 1925 by Walter P. Chrysler.
Most of the remaining independents were wiped out in the Great Depression, with Nash, Hudson, Studebaker, and Packard hanging on only to collapse in the post-World War II period.
The Model T was intended to be a farmers car that served the transportation needs of a nation of farmers. Its popularity was bound to wane as the country urbanized and as rural regions got out of the mud with passage of the 1916 Federal Aid Road Act and the 1921 Federal Highway Act.
Moreover, the Model T remained basically unchanged long after it was technologically obsolete. Model T owners began to trade up to larger, faster, smoother riding, more stylish cars. The demand for basic transportation the Model T had met tended increasingly in the 1920s to be filled from the backlog of used cars piling up in dealers lots as the market became saturated.
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History Of The Automobile
Development of the automobile started in 1672 with the invention of the first steam-powered vehicle, which led to the creation of the first steam-powered automobile capable of human transportation, built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot in 1769. Inventors began to branch out at the start of the 19th century, creating the de Rivas engine, one of the first internal combustion engines, and an early electric motor.Samuel Brown later tested the first industrially applied internal combustion engine in 1826.
Development was hindered in the mid-19th century by a backlash against large vehicles, yet progress continued on some internal combustion engines. The engine evolved as engineers created two- and four-cycle combustion engines and began using gasoline as fuel. Production vehicles began appearing in 1887, when Carl Benz developed a gasoline-powered automobile and made several identical copies. Recent automobile production is marked by the Ford Model T, created by the Ford Motor Company in 1908, which became the first automobile to be mass-produced on a moving assembly line.
Private Or Internal Costs
Compared to other popular modes of passenger transportation, especially buses or trains, the car has a relatively high cost per passenger-distance travelled. Motorists in the United Kingdom seem to spend on their cars an average of roughly 1/3 of their average net income, while motorists in Portugal seem to spend 1/2 of their net income. For the average car owner, depreciation constitutes about half the cost of running a car, nevertheless the typical motorist underestimates this fixed cost by a big margin, or even ignores it altogether.
In the United States, out of pocket expenses for car ownership can vary considerably based on the state in which you live. In 2013, annual car ownership costs including repair, insurance, gas and taxes were highest in Georgia and lowest in Oregon with a national average of $3,201. Furthermore, the IRS considers, for tax deduction calculations, that the automobile has a total cost for drivers in the USA, of 0.55 USD/mile, around 0.26 EUR/km. Data provided by the American Automobile Association indicates that the cost of ownership for an automobile in the United States is rising about 2% per year. 2013 data provided by the Canadian Automobile Association concludes that the cost of ownership for a compact car in Canada, including depreciation, insurance, borrowing costs, maintenance, licensing, etc. was CA $9500 per year, or about US $7300.
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World War Ii And The Auto Industry
The automobile industry had played a critical role in producing military vehicles and war matériel in the First World War. During World War II, in addition to turning out several million military vehicles, American automobile manufacturers made some seventy-five essential military items, most of them unrelated to the motor vehicle. These materials had a total value of $29 billion, one-fifth of the nations war production.
Because the manufacture of vehicles for the civilian market ceased in 1942 and tires and gasoline were severely rationed, motor vehicle travel fell dramatically during the war years. Cars that had been nursed through the Depression long after they were ready to be junked were patched up further, ensuring great pent-up demand for new cars at the wars end.
Detroits Big Three carried Sloanism to its illogical conclusion in the postwar period. Models and options proliferated, and every year cars became longer and heavier, more powerful, more gadget-bedecked, more expensive to purchase and to operate, following the truism that large cars are more profitable to sell than small ones.
Internal Combustion Engine: The Heart Of The Automobile
An internal combustion engine is an engine that uses the explosive combustion of fuel to push a piston within a cylinder the piston’s movement turns a crankshaft that then turns the car wheels via a chain or a drive shaft. The different types of fuel commonly used for car combustion engines are gasoline , diesel, and kerosene.
A brief outline of the history of the internal combustion engine includes the following highlights:
Engine design and car design were integral activities, almost all of the engine designers mentioned above also designed cars, and a few went on to become major manufacturers of automobiles. All of these inventors and more made notable improvements in the evolution of the internal combustion vehicles.
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Benz Moves Forward And Others Follow
In as early as 1896, Karl Benz came up with an internal-combustion engine and was the biggest car company in the entire world, selling 572 units by 1899. By 1892 Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach formed the Daimler Motor Company and also began producing internal-combustion engine cars. Benz and the Daimler/Maybach team never produced a car together.
In 1900, with Daimler gone, Maybach called his new car the Daimler-Mercedes, and one could only special order one made from the design of Emil Jellinek. After WWI, Karl Benz wanted a partnership with the Daimler Motor Company, but neither party could come to an agreement, leaving them with an Agreement of Mutual Interest that would remain in effect in until year 2000! That didn’t mean they wouldn’t jointly advertise and produce cars together, it meant they would keep their companies separate entities. But that Agreement of Mutual Interest would not last long.
Finally in 1924, Benz & Cie and the Daimler Motor Company agreed to a merger, changing their company name to Daimler-Benz. Their first car would be named the Mercedes Benz.
In the United States, George Selden attempted to obtain a patent for a two-stroke engine car, but Henry Ford who had his own invention, was not happy and questioned Selden’s work Selden never received his patent to build a car.
Worlds First Car: Who Invented The Car And When It Was Made
In todays world, cars or vehicles, in general, have become a necessity in everyones lives. It is hard even to get to work without taking the help of a transport system.
While riding the modern car built with top-class technologies and advanced equipment, have you ever imagined what the first car ever invented was like?
Lets discuss the inventor of the first car ever and look at some of the earliest car models produced. In the 18th and 19th centuries, many car inventors came up with their own designs.
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When Were Cars Invented
The 1901 Mercedes, designed by Wilhelm Maybach for Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, deserves credit for being the first modern motorcar in all essentials.
Its thirty-five-horsepower engine weighed only fourteen pounds per horsepower, and it achieved a top speed of fifty-three miles per hour. By 1909, with the most integrated automobile factory in Europe, Daimler employed some seventeen hundred workers to produce fewer than a thousand cars per year.
Nothing illustrates the superiority of European design better than the sharp contrast between this first Mercedes model and Ransom E. Olds 1901-1906 one-cylinder, three-horsepower, tiller-steered, curved-dash Oldsmobile, which was merely a motorized horse buggy. But the Olds sold for only $650, putting it within reach of middle-class Americans, and the 1904 Olds output of 5,508 units surpassed any car production previously accomplished.
The central problem of automotive technology over the first decade of the twentieth century would be reconciling the advanced design of the 1901 Mercedes with the moderate price and low operating expenses of the Olds. This would be overwhelmingly an American achievement.
Were There Cars In The 1900s
Yes, there were cars in the early 1900s but they were not prevalent until the 1910s. The Model T was invented in 1906 by Henry Ford and was the first somewhat affordable option for the American people. It wasnt until 1913 and the introduction of the assembly line that cars began to appear in front of homes in increasing volume. The 1920s are when the automobile really began to make traction. By the end of the 1929 25% of Americans owned a vehicle.
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Acceleration And Drivetrain Design
Electric motors can provide high . Batteries can be designed to supply the electrical current needed to support these motors. Electric motors have a flat torque curve down to zero speed. For simplicity and reliability, most electric cars use fixed-ratio gearboxes and have no clutch.
Many electric cars have faster acceleration than average ICE cars, largely due to reduced drivetrain frictional losses and the more quickly-available torque of an electric motor. However, NEVs may have a low acceleration due to their relatively weak motors.
Electric vehicles can also use a or next to the wheels, this is rare but claimed to be safer. Electric vehicles that lack an , , or can have less drivetrain inertia. Some -equipped drag racer EVs have simple two-speed to improve top speed. The concept electric supercar claims it can go from 097 km/h in 2.5 seconds. Tesla claims the upcoming will go 060 mph in 1.9 seconds.
Internal combustion engines have on efficiency, expressed as a fraction of energy used to propel the vehicle compared to energy produced by burning fuel. effectively use only 15% of the fuel energy content to move the vehicle or to power accessories can reach on-board efficiency of 20% electric vehicles have efficiencies of 69-72%, when counted against stored chemical energy, or around 59-62%, when counted against required energy to recharge.
Legacy Of The Us Auto Industry
The automobile has been a key force for change in twentieth-century America. During the 1920s the industry became the backbone of a new consumer goods-oriented society. By the mid-1920s it ranked first in value of product, and in 1982 it provided one out of every six jobs in the United States.
In the 1920s the automobile became the lifeblood of the petroleum industry, one of the chief customers of the steel industry, and the biggest consumer of many other industrial products. The technologies of these ancillary industries, particularly steel and petroleum, were revolutionized by its demands.
The automobile stimulated participation in outdoor recreation and spurred the growth of tourism and tourism-related industries, such as service stations, roadside restaurants and motels. The construction of streets and highways, one of the largest items of government expenditure, peaked when the Interstate Highway Act of 1956 inaugurated the largest public works program in history.
The automobile ended rural isolation and brought urban amenitiesmost important, better medical care and schoolsto rural America . The modern city with its surrounding industrial and residential suburbs is a product of the automobile and trucking.
In 1980, 87.2 percent of American households owned one or more motor vehicles, 51.5 percent owned more than one, and fully 95 percent of domestic car sales were for replacement. Americans have become truly auto-dependent.
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The Importance Of The Internal Combustion Engine In The Car Invention
The big break in the automotive field was the introduction of the internal combustion engine. Combustion is the chemical process that releases energy from the mixture of fuel and air. In an internal combustion engine, this process pushes the piston and rotates the crankshaft, which further drives the wheels through a system of gears.
The first notable developments of this engine included various experiments. Christian Huygens, a Dutch physicist, tried gunpowder in 1680. Francois Isaac de Rivaz of Switzerland used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in 1807. Samuel Brown, an English engineer, used an old steam engine and made it to burn gas in 1824.
As the list goes on and on, we’ll finish with only some of the most significant developments that pushed the industry toward the modernity. For instance, Siegfried Marcus built a one-cylinder engine and added it to a cart in 1864. A German engineer Nicolaus August Otto developed and patented a four-stroke engine in 1876, the same year Dougald Clerk made the first successful two-stroke one.
Nine years later, Gottlieb Daimler invented a so-called prototype of the modern gas engine and added it to a two-wheeled vehicle. In 1886, Karl Benz got the patent for his gas-fueled car.